Linux Essential

linux-essentials

Topic 1:The Linux Community and a Career in open source (weight: 7)

1.1 Linux Evolution and Popular Operating Systems

 

Description: Knowledge of Linux development and major distributions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • open source Philosophy
  • Distributions
  • Embedded Systems

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Android
  • Debian, Ubuntu (LTS)
  • CentOS, openSUSE, Red Hat
  • Linux Mint, Scientific Linux

 

1.2 Major open source Applications

Weight: 2

Description: Awareness of major applications as well as their uses and development.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Desktop Applications
  • Server Applications
  • Development Languages
  • Package Management Tools and repositories

Terms and Utilities:

  • OpenOffice.org, LibreOffice, Thunderbird, Firefox, GIMP
  • Apache HTTPD, NGINX, MySQL, NFS, Samba
  • C, Java, Perl, shell, Python, Samba
  • dpkg, apt-get, rpm, yum

 

1.3 Understanding open source Software and Licensing

Weight: 1

Description: Open communities and licensing open source Software for business.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Licensing
  • Free Software Foundation (FSF), open source Initiative (OSI)

Terms and Utilities:

  • GPL, BSD, Creative Commons
  • Free Software, open source Software, FOSS, FLOSS
  • open source business models

 

1.4 ICT Skills and Working in Linux

Weight: 2

Description: Basic Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills and working in Linux.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Desktop Skills
  • Getting to the Command Line
  • Industry uses of Linux, Cloud Computing and Virtualization

Terms and Utilities:

  • Using a browser, privacy concerns, configuration options, searching the web and saving content
  • Terminal and Console
  • Password issues
  • Privacy issues and tools
  • Use of common open source applications in presentations and projects

Topic 2: Finding Your Way on a Linux System (weight: 9)

2.1 Command Line Basics

Weight: 3

Description: Basics of using the Linux command line.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic shell
  • Command line syntax
  • Variables
  • Globbing
  • Quoting

Terms and Utilities:

  • Bash
  • echo
  • history
  • PATH env variable
  • export
  • type

 

2.2 Using the Command Line to Get Help

Weight: 2

Description: Running help commands and navigation of the various help systems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Man
  • Info

Terms and Utilities:

  • man
  • info
  • Man pages
  • /usr/share/doc/
  • locate

 

2.3 Using Directories and Listing Files

Weight: 2

Description: Navigation of home and system directories and listing files in various locations.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Files, directories
  • Hidden files and directories
  • Home
  • Absolute and relative paths

Terms and Utilities:

  • Common options for ls
  • Recursive listings
  • cd
  • . and ..
  • home and ~

 

2.4 Creating, Moving and Deleting Files

Weight: 2

Description: Create, move and delete files and directories under the home directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Files and directories
  • Case sensitivity
  • Simple globbing and quoting

Terms and Utilities:

  • mv, cp, rm, touch
  • mkdir, rmdir

Topic 3: The Power of the Command Line (weight: 9)

3.1 Archiving Files on the Command Line

Weight:  2

Description: Archiving files in the user home directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Files, directories
  • Archives, compression

Terms and Utilities:

  • tar
  • Common tar options
  • gzip, bzip2
  • zip, unzip

 

3.2 Searching and Extracting Data from Files

Weight: 3

Description: Search and extract data from files in the home directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Command line pipes
  • I/O re-direction
  • Basic Regular Expressions ., [  ], *, ?

Terms and Utilities:

  • grep
  • less
  • cat, head, tail
  • sort
  • cut
  • wc

 

3.3 Turning Commands into a Script

Weight: 4

Description: Turning repetitive commands into simple scripts.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic shell scripting
  • Awareness of common text editors

Terms and Utilities:

  • #! (shebang)
  • /bin/bash
  • Variables
  • Arguments
  • for loops
  • echo
  • Exit status

Topic 4: The Linux Operating System (weight: 8)

4.1 Choosing an Operating System

Weight: 1

Description: Knowledge of major operating systems and Linux distributions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Windows, Mac, Linux differences
  • Distribution life cycle management

Terms and Utilities:

  • GUI versus command line, desktop configuration
  • Maintenance cycles, Beta and Stable

 

4.2 Understanding Computer Hardware

Weight: 2

Description: Familiarity with the components that go into building desktop and server computers.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Hardware

Terms and Utilities:

  • Motherboards, processors, power supplies, optical drives, peripherals
  • Hard drives and partitions, /dev/sd*
  • Drivers

 

4.3 Where Data is Stored

Weight: 3

Description: Where various types of information are stored on a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Programs and configuration, packages and package databases
  • Processes, memory addresses, system messaging and logging

Terms and Utilities:

  • ps, top, free
  • syslog, dmesg
  • /etc/, /var/log/
  • /boot/, /proc/, /dev/, /sys/

 

4.4 Your Computer on the Network

Weight: 2

Description: Querying vital networking configuration and determining the basic requirements for a computer on a Local Area Network (LAN).

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Internet, network, routers
  • Querying DNS client configuration
  • Querying Network configuration

Terms and Utilities:

  • route, ip route show
  • ifconfig, ip addr show
  • netstat, ip route show
  • /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/hosts
  • IPv4, IPv6
  • ping
  • host

Topic 5: Security and File Permissions (weight: 7)

5.1 Basic Security and Identifying User Types

Weight: 2

Description: Various types of users on a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Root and Standard Users
  • System users

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/passwd, /etc/group
  • id, who, w
  • sudo, su

 

5.2 Creating Users and Groups

Weight: 2

Description: Creating users and groups on a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • User and group commands
  • User IDs

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, /etc/group, /etc/skel/
  • id, last
  • useradd, groupadd
  • passwd

 

5.3 Managing File Permissions and Ownership

Weight: 2

Description: Understanding and manipulating file permissions and ownership settings.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • File/directory permissions and owners
  • Terms and Utilities:
  • ls -l, ls -a
  • chmod, chown

 

5.4 Special Directories and Files

Weight: 1

Description: Special directories and files on a Linux system including special permissions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Using temporary files and directories
  • Symbolic links

Terms and Utilities:

  • /tmp/, /var/tmp/ and Sticky Bit
  • ls -d
  • ln -s

Smart Home(IOT)

We have developed a full feature and extendable Smart system that cover Home, garden, factory,…

It’s modular, every device can interduce itself by JSON and app know how to react with each of them

 

Features

  • scan and search devices
  • define zones and assign devices to these zones
  • record scenario and replay it for actions
  • set actions per sensors conditions

Technologies

  • Arduino
  • REST
  • esp 8266 wifi
  • Gas sensors
  • Relay Switches
  • RGB LED

Video

inpin

Inpin

The real estate app like Zillow we have launched in Iran

You can find real estates by searching in the map and drew polygon and filters

Also, you can submit your request and every day get the new suggestions from the app according to your budget and features you want

Features

  • AR
  • Matching Algorithm
  • Draw on Map
  • Walk Score(Calculate Accessibility Polygon)
  • Custome Component

Video

Screen Shots

 

Website

https://inpinapp.com

 

Carpino

Carpino

The Official Ride-sharing app for Iran Taxi Organization

We developer ios and android of this application

This app is an app like Uber, we’ve developed the iOS app with Objective-C

Features:

  • e-wallet
  • Discount code
  • Rides History
  • Driver Rating

Technologies:

  • google map
  • MQTT
  • APN
  • REST

Screen Shots:

 

Website: 

https://www.carpino.ir

 

news1

Do you see any Teletubbies in here? Do you see a slender plastic tag clipped to my shirt with my name printed on it? Do you see a little Asian child with a blank expression on his face sitting outside on a mechanical helicopter that shakes when you put quarters in it? No? Well, that’s what you see at a toy store. And you must think you’re in a toy store, because you’re here shopping for an infant named Jeb.

Project2

Origins and Discovery

Lorem ipsum began as scrambled, nonsensical Latin derived from Cicero’s 1st-century BC text De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum.

Engraving of Marcus Tullius Cicero

CICERO

HEDONIST ROOTS

Until recently, the prevailing view assumed lorem ipsum was born as a nonsense text. “It’s not Latin, though it looks like it, and it actually says nothing,” Before & After magazine answered a curious reader, “Its ‘words’ loosely approximate the frequency with which letters occur in English, which is why at a glance it looks pretty real.”

As Cicero would put it, “Um, not so fast.”

The placeholder text, beginning with the line “Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit”, looks like Latin because in its youth, centuries ago, it was Latin.

Richard McClintock, a Latin scholar from Hampden-Sydney College, is creditedwith discovering the source behind the ubiquitous filler text. In seeing a sample of lorem ipsum, his interest was piqued by consectetur—a genuine, albeit rare, Latin word. Consulting a Latin dictionary led McClintock to a passage from De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum (“On the Extremes of Good and Evil”), a first-century B.C. text from the Roman philosopher Cicero.

In particular, the garbled words of lorem ipsum bear an unmistakable resemblance to sections 1.10.32–33 of Cicero’s work, with the most notable passage excerpted below:

“Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem.”

A 1914 English translation by Harris Rackham reads:

“Nor is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure.”

McClintock’s eye for detail certainly helped narrow the whereabouts of lorem ipsum’s origin, however, the “how and when” still remain something of a mystery, with competing theories and timelines.

project1

Lorem Ipsum: usage

Lorem ipsum is a pseudo-Latin text used in web design, typography, layout, and printing in place of English to emphasise design elements over content. It’s also called placeholdiagonal layout based on Lorem Ipsumder (or filler) text. It’s a convenient tool for mock-ups. It helps to outline the visual elements of a document or presentation, eg typography, font, or layout. Lorem ipsum is mostly a part of a Latin text by the classical author and philosopher Cicero. Its words and letters have been changed by addition or removal, so to deliberately render its content nonsensical; it’s not genuine, correct, or comprehensible Latin anymore. While lorem ipsum‘s still resembles classical Latin, it actually has no meaning whatsoever. As Cicero’s text doesn’t contain the letters K, W, or Z, alien to latin, these, and others are often inserted randomly to mimic the typographic appearence of European languages, as are digraphs not to be found in the original.

In a professional context it often happens that private or corporate clients corder a publication to be made and presented with the actual content still not being ready. Think of a news blog that’s filled with content hourly on the day of going live. However, reviewers tend to be distracted by comprehensible content, say, a random text copied from a newspaper or the internet. The are likely to focus on the text, disregarding the layout and its elements. Besides, random text risks to be unintendedly humorous or offensive, an unacceptable risk in corporate environments. Lorem ipsum and its many variants have been employed since the early 1960ies, and quite likely since the sixteenth century.

Lorem Ipsum: common examples

layout based on Lorem IpsumMost of its text is made up from sections 1.10.32–3 of Cicero’s De finibus bonorum et malorum (On the Boundaries of Goods and Evils; finibus may also be translated as purposes). Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit is the first known version (“Neither is there anyone who loves grief itself since it is grief and thus wants to obtain it”). It was found by Richard McClintock, a philologist, director of publications at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia; he searched for citings of consectetur in classical Latin literature, a term of remarkably low frequency in that literary corpus.

Cicero famously orated against his political opponent Lucius Sergius Catilina. Occasionally the first Oration against Catiline is taken for type specimens: Quo usque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? Quam diu etiam furor iste tuus nos eludet? (How long, O Catiline, will you abuse our patience? And for how long will that madness of yours mock us?)

Cicero’s version of Liber Primus (first Book), sections 1.10.32–3 (fragments included in most Lorem Ipsum variants in red):

Cicero writing letters; from an early edition by Hieronymus ScotusSed ut perspiciatis, unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam eaque ipsa, quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt, explicabo. Nemo enim ipsam voluptatem, quia voluptas sit, aspernatur aut odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur magni dolores eos, qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt, neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum, quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci[ng] velit, sed quia non numquam [do] eius modi tempora inci[di]dunt, ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. Ut enim ad minima veniam, quis nostrum exercitationem ullam corporis suscipit laboriosam, nisi ut aliquid ex ea commodi consequatur? Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit, qui in ea voluptate velit esse, quam nihil molestiae consequatur, vel illum, qui dolorem eum fugiat, quo voluptas nulla pariatur?

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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec pretium tincidunt est, sed pretium enim hendrerit at. Mauris consequat dapibus eleifend. Vivamus cursus velit id mauris sollicitudin efficitur. Aliquam in auctor sem. Vestibulum auctor nisi varius ante malesuada, vehicula dapibus libero tempor. Aliquam erat volutpat. Quisque condimentum risus elementum, volutpat odio blandit, fermentum nunc. Aenean ligula felis, rhoncus ornare ipsum pharetra, pellentesque pellentesque neque. Nullam et elit ut erat finibus semper in porttitor massa. Nullam consequat, mi ut pharetra luctus, ligula felis sollicitudin urna, et tristique ante metus id libero.

Sed lacus orci, sollicitudin sed eleifend ut, ullamcorper et ex. Praesent posuere quam quam, convallis pellentesque ligula mattis vitae. Sed pellentesque bibendum lorem sit amet venenatis. Etiam dictum magna vel urna pulvinar pretium. Sed nibh dui, posuere vitae pulvinar sit amet, hendrerit a tellus. Nullam in aliquam tellus. In eu ipsum semper, porttitor mi a, consectetur velit. Sed sodales ac orci a venenatis. Morbi consectetur dui et magna ornare, et tempor libero sollicitudin. Duis non convallis ante. Nunc placerat commodo justo, sed tincidunt diam aliquet sit amet. Etiam tempor varius vehicula. Fusce eu facilisis nisl.

Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Morbi pellentesque ultrices urna, eu dapibus erat feugiat sed. Phasellus fermentum egestas feugiat. Phasellus aliquam vel metus nec elementum. Sed pellentesque vestibulum leo ac ornare. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce fringilla lorem hendrerit libero accumsan mattis. Donec lobortis sem sem, non rhoncus tortor malesuada eget. Proin eleifend purus lorem, ut commodo augue finibus id.

Nam quam nunc, sagittis sit amet consequat in, ornare id metus. Phasellus rutrum leo ac gravida hendrerit. Suspendisse at tempus dolor. Aliquam nisi urna, vehicula quis magna in, consectetur fermentum metus. Nullam vel consequat felis. Duis quis sapien ornare, tempus tellus quis, sollicitudin ipsum. Nulla ante quam, dictum quis vehicula nec, vulputate eu arcu. Quisque luctus dapibus erat, vel iaculis augue porttitor vel. Quisque magna eros, laoreet in purus sit amet, iaculis mollis sapien.

Proin mattis massa nisl, vitae vulputate orci pulvinar eu. Ut luctus arcu ligula. Praesent commodo eget nulla sit amet scelerisque. Ut porta suscipit magna sit amet dapibus. Vestibulum sollicitudin nisl eget nisl pulvinar, in pharetra lacus fermentum. Curabitur eget blandit sapien, at gravida mi. Nullam tempor, diam eget molestie ultrices, nibh urna congue ante, sit amet iaculis felis erat at massa. Donec blandit nec massa non porttitor. Quisque quis semper sapien, id sodales quam. Donec vehicula ultrices faucibus. Suspendisse quis massa a urna molestie luctus at non metus. Morbi vehicula tincidunt sem ac lacinia. Proin congue gravida leo, et tristique nisl malesuada pulvinar.

post 2

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec pretium tincidunt est, sed pretium enim hendrerit at. Mauris consequat dapibus eleifend. Vivamus cursus velit id mauris sollicitudin efficitur. Aliquam in auctor sem. Vestibulum auctor nisi varius ante malesuada, vehicula dapibus libero tempor. Aliquam erat volutpat. Quisque condimentum risus elementum, volutpat odio blandit, fermentum nunc. Aenean ligula felis, rhoncus ornare ipsum pharetra, pellentesque pellentesque neque. Nullam et elit ut erat finibus semper in porttitor massa. Nullam consequat, mi ut pharetra luctus, ligula felis sollicitudin urna, et tristique ante metus id libero.

Sed lacus orci, sollicitudin sed eleifend ut, ullamcorper et ex. Praesent posuere quam quam, convallis pellentesque ligula mattis vitae. Sed pellentesque bibendum lorem sit amet venenatis. Etiam dictum magna vel urna pulvinar pretium. Sed nibh dui, posuere vitae pulvinar sit amet, hendrerit a tellus. Nullam in aliquam tellus. In eu ipsum semper, porttitor mi a, consectetur velit. Sed sodales ac orci a venenatis. Morbi consectetur dui et magna ornare, et tempor libero sollicitudin. Duis non convallis ante. Nunc placerat commodo justo, sed tincidunt diam aliquet sit amet. Etiam tempor varius vehicula. Fusce eu facilisis nisl.

Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Morbi pellentesque ultrices urna, eu dapibus erat feugiat sed. Phasellus fermentum egestas feugiat. Phasellus aliquam vel metus nec elementum. Sed pellentesque vestibulum leo ac ornare. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce fringilla lorem hendrerit libero accumsan mattis. Donec lobortis sem sem, non rhoncus tortor malesuada eget. Proin eleifend purus lorem, ut commodo augue finibus id.

Nam quam nunc, sagittis sit amet consequat in, ornare id metus. Phasellus rutrum leo ac gravida hendrerit. Suspendisse at tempus dolor. Aliquam nisi urna, vehicula quis magna in, consectetur fermentum metus. Nullam vel consequat felis. Duis quis sapien ornare, tempus tellus quis, sollicitudin ipsum. Nulla ante quam, dictum quis vehicula nec, vulputate eu arcu. Quisque luctus dapibus erat, vel iaculis augue porttitor vel. Quisque magna eros, laoreet in purus sit amet, iaculis mollis sapien.

Proin mattis massa nisl, vitae vulputate orci pulvinar eu. Ut luctus arcu ligula. Praesent commodo eget nulla sit amet scelerisque. Ut porta suscipit magna sit amet dapibus. Vestibulum sollicitudin nisl eget nisl pulvinar, in pharetra lacus fermentum. Curabitur eget blandit sapien, at gravida mi. Nullam tempor, diam eget molestie ultrices, nibh urna congue ante, sit amet iaculis felis erat at massa. Donec blandit nec massa non porttitor. Quisque quis semper sapien, id sodales quam. Donec vehicula ultrices faucibus. Suspendisse quis massa a urna molestie luctus at non metus. Morbi vehicula tincidunt sem ac lacinia. Proin congue gravida leo, et tristique nisl malesuada pulvinar.

post1

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec pretium tincidunt est, sed pretium enim hendrerit at. Mauris consequat dapibus eleifend. Vivamus cursus velit id mauris sollicitudin efficitur. Aliquam in auctor sem. Vestibulum auctor nisi varius ante malesuada, vehicula dapibus libero tempor. Aliquam erat volutpat. Quisque condimentum risus elementum, volutpat odio blandit, fermentum nunc. Aenean ligula felis, rhoncus ornare ipsum pharetra, pellentesque pellentesque neque. Nullam et elit ut erat finibus semper in porttitor massa. Nullam consequat, mi ut pharetra luctus, ligula felis sollicitudin urna, et tristique ante metus id libero.

test cap

Sed lacus orci, sollicitudin sed eleifend ut, ullamcorper et ex. Praesent posuere quam quam, convallis pellentesque ligula mattis vitae. Sed pellentesque bibendum lorem sit amet venenatis. Etiam dictum magna vel urna pulvinar pretium. Sed nibh dui, posuere vitae pulvinar sit amet, hendrerit a tellus. Nullam in aliquam tellus. In eu ipsum semper, porttitor mi a, consectetur velit. Sed sodales ac orci a venenatis. Morbi consectetur dui et magna ornare, et tempor libero sollicitudin. Duis non convallis ante. Nunc placerat commodo justo, sed tincidunt diam aliquet sit amet. Etiam tempor varius vehicula. Fusce eu facilisis nisl.

Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Morbi pellentesque ultrices urna, eu dapibus erat feugiat sed. Phasellus fermentum egestas feugiat. Phasellus aliquam vel metus nec elementum. Sed pellentesque vestibulum leo ac ornare. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce fringilla lorem hendrerit libero accumsan mattis. Donec lobortis sem sem, non rhoncus tortor malesuada eget. Proin eleifend purus lorem, ut commodo augue finibus id.

Nam quam nunc, sagittis sit amet consequat in, ornare id metus. Phasellus rutrum leo ac gravida hendrerit. Suspendisse at tempus dolor. Aliquam nisi urna, vehicula quis magna in, consectetur fermentum metus. Nullam vel consequat felis. Duis quis sapien ornare, tempus tellus quis, sollicitudin ipsum. Nulla ante quam, dictum quis vehicula nec, vulputate eu arcu. Quisque luctus dapibus erat, vel iaculis augue porttitor vel. Quisque magna eros, laoreet in purus sit amet, iaculis mollis sapien.

Proin mattis massa nisl, vitae vulputate orci pulvinar eu. Ut luctus arcu ligula. Praesent commodo eget nulla sit amet scelerisque. Ut porta suscipit magna sit amet dapibus. Vestibulum sollicitudin nisl eget nisl pulvinar, in pharetra lacus fermentum. Curabitur eget blandit sapien, at gravida mi. Nullam tempor, diam eget molestie ultrices, nibh urna congue ante, sit amet iaculis felis erat at massa. Donec blandit nec massa non porttitor. Quisque quis semper sapien, id sodales quam. Donec vehicula ultrices faucibus. Suspendisse quis massa a urna molestie luctus at non metus. Morbi vehicula tincidunt sem ac lacinia. Proin congue gravida leo, et tristique nisl malesuada pulvinar.